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One of the main single partys zwickau topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. Keywords: Albert Moll, Castration, Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses, Gustav Boeters, Sterilisation, Sexology Introduction In Germany, an interdisciplinary discussion about medical possibilities and socio-technological opportunities, as well as the ethical legitimacy and political legality of sterilisation operations, began at the end of the nineteenth century.
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It culminated with the National Socialists coming to power and introducing compulsory sterilisations. The conspicuously vigorous manner in which the different pros and cons were applied to the process of eugenic agenda-setting in the case of — voluntary as well as compulsory — sterilisations must be seen as single partys zwickau clear indication of the special interest in these operations.
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Not only post- but also pre they were seriously considered as a conceivable measure for the solution of various social problems — eg. The Jewish-born physician and sexologist Albert Moll —2 from Berlin, was one of the most prominent — but, nevertheless, nowadays nearly forgotten — representatives of this discussion.
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By analysing the most relevant publications, this paper reconstructs how, during the first third of the twentieth century, Moll positioned himself within the sexological deliberations about the legalisation of sterilisation as either a voluntary or compulsory intervention on the basis of medical, social, economic, criminological and, especially, eugenic indications. Why did Moll not agree with the suggestions about sterilisation made by his Saxon colleague, Gustav Emil Boeters —in his so-called Lex Zwickau [Zwickau Bill]?
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However, in the course of the nineteenth century, when the ideas of eugenics and racial hygiene — coupled with the concept of Social Darwinism — occurred, the plea made by Frank several decades earlier experienced an unexpected revival. Nevertheless, sterilisations — ie.
As far as it is apparent, Albert Moll gave his opinion on this subject for the first time before the First World War. In his Handbuch der Sexualwissenschaften [Handbook of Sexology], published inhe emphasised that it would be legitimate for a doctor to recommend permanent sterilisation if there was no doubt about a serious medical indication.
Cases of contraception without a medical reason but rather based on an economic indication, Moll continued, had to be judged quite differently. He was however fully aware of the fact that it was not always easy to single partys zwickau a clear distinction between medical and non-medical reasons.
This would also be necessary if a doctor wanted to avert fertilisation in order to prevent pathological descendants. Although he did not speak of sterilisations in this context, Moll admitted that there might well be some instances in which a genetic prognosis was possible and, if so, the doctor was entitled to recommend birth control.
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However, the doctor was not entitled to help women who did not want a baby out of self-seeking sluggishness. For Moll, birth control was also a legitimate interest of the state. If absolutely no compelling medical indication for sterilisation existed he asked single partys zwickau colleagues not to serve the dishonest purposes of others — young and healthy women, for instance, who considered sterilisation to be a comfortable substitute for repeated abortions, although there was no medical necessity for such a prophylactic operation.
A physician should always pay respect to the reputation of his profession and should take the responsibility not to carry out medically unnecessary operations. These terms are However, while the exact basis of heredity was seen as still extremely uncertain, some of his colleagues had already called for artificial infertility by means of castration and sterilisation for particular kinds of people. One lecture, as he mentioned ten years single partys zwickau in his memoirs, dealt with Single partys zwickau der praktischen Eugenik [Indications of Practical Eugenics].
The scientific knowledge of hereditary factors had to be distinguished from the conclusions drawn by enthusiasts. Nevertheless, Moll raised the objection that some of his colleagues tended to jump to conclusions for practical purposes and thereby hindered the geneticists in driving forward their essential research.
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Either way, he asked his audience to take into account the fact that this would also have led to an almost complete extinction of the population — at least in Europe. The anthropologist and human single partys zwickau Fritz Lenz —who held the first German chair in racial hygiene at the University of Munich inand called for mass sterilisations of at least ten per cent of one generation, or even one third of the entire German population — ie.
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The Beethoven family usually serves as an example for the hereditability of excellent musical talent. In particular, the fathering of the most serious criminals could probably not be decreased in any direction to any recognisable degree, if someone wanted to sterilise certain criminals.
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If only this were to change, eugenics might be able to solve the riddles of heredity and, moreover, would then be able to give practical advice for social engineering.
Depending on the respective case, these sterilisations single partys zwickau social indications should be carried out either voluntarily — in order to receive a certificate — or compulsorily — if offspring had already been fathered without state-certified permission — as Schallmayer demanded.
This growing interest was owed, above all, to a man whose name remains inextricably linked with the sterilisation debate single partys zwickau the Weimar Republic, Gustav Boeters.
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Early inBoeters had formulated a draft bill with a corresponding decree, also known as the Lex Zwickau, 59 denying that sterilisations were an offence against the German Penal Code then in force. While numerous sterilisations were already being performed, there single partys zwickau still no precise legal rules on permitting or prohibiting compulsory sterilisation.
On the one hand he, along with Boeters and others, declared himself in favour of clear legal conditions and took the Swiss canton Waadt as a good example.
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In the state of California in the USA, for instance, sterilisation was based on a special law already enacted in single partys zwickau, 67 but Moll regarded the guarantees to preclude wrong indications in the case of compulsory sterilisation to be far too weak. Their common arena was a meeting of physicians and journalists from Berlin dealing with the subject Die Verhütung unwerten Lebens [The Prevention of Unworthy Life].
Subsequently, inthey submitted single partys zwickau motion to the parliamentary committee for criminal law proposing that if an habitual criminal in preventive detention was to undergo sterilisation, the responsible criminal court should have the option to order his premature release from prison.
While Moll had not much trust in the present capabilities of eugenicists, Boeters strongly believed in the results of their latest research, as well as in his own practical experience with sterilisation. Neither a doctor nor anybody else should overestimate the human faculty of judgement as well as the recent level of proficiency of eugenics.
So how, Moll enquired, could anybody prognosticate that the subsequent generation might also have a degenerated genotype and, furthermore, show criminal tendencies as well? Incidentally, it could not be ruled out that the next generation might be neither hereditarily ill nor delinquent because a prior regeneration might have taken single partys zwickau.